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    哪个彩票软件最正规: 公共科学图书馆(Public Library of Science,简称PLoS)

    PLoS2010年6月25日 10:58 点击:7589

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    公共科学图书馆(Public Library of Science,简称PLoS) www.plos.org
    公共科学图书馆(Public Library of Science,简称PLoS)
    公共科学图书馆(Public Library of Science,简称PLoS)是一个由科学家和医生组成的非营利机构,致力于把世界上科学和医学的文献作为免费资源向公众开放。
    目标
      ●通过让世界任何一个地方的科学家、医生、病患或者学生无限制地获取最新的科学研究讯息,打开世界科学知识图书馆之门。   ●通过实现自由搜索已发表的文章全文,查找特定观点、方法、试验结果和观察资料,以促进研究、资料齐全的医学实践和教育。   ●让科学家、图书馆管理员、出版商和企业家可以发展新的模式以探索和利用世界科学理念和发现的宝库。
    正在做的事
      2000年10月,PLoS由生物医学科学家Harold E. Varmus、Patrick O. Brown和Michael B. Eisen创立,它的第一个行动就是发布一封公开信,鼓励科学出版商把研究文献透过在线免费公共文件发布(例如美国国家医学图书馆的PubMed中心)。这封公开信由来自大约180个国家的34,000名科学家签署,加速了许多科学出版商更自由地获得已发表研究途径的脚步。遗憾的是,出版商的反应远远落后于我们主张的合理策略。   2003年,PLoS作出一个非营利科学医学发布的决定,为科学家和医生提供高质量高水平的期刊,其中会发布他们最重要的作品。在这个开放资源的模式下,PLoS期刊直接在网上可以看到,免费使用,之后再发布或使用也没有任何限制,只要按创作共享注明出处授权条款的要求注明作者和来源即可。
    组织现状
      PLoS是免征税(501(c)3)的非营利机构,总部在美国加州旧金山(联邦税号:68-0492065),它由董事会管理,由发起人之一的Harold Varmus担任主席。   PLoS得到Gordon和Betty Moore基金(Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation)九百万美元的资助,作为启动资金,并得到Sandler家庭支持基金(Sandler Family Supporting Foundation)、开放社会协会(Open Society Institute)、Irving A Hansen纪念基金会(Irving A Hansen Memorial Foundation)、Doris Duke慈善基金(Doris Duke Charitable Foundation)、Ellison医学基金会(Ellison Medical Foundation)、Burroughs Wellcome基金(Burroughs Wellcome Fund)及许多其它的基金会、大学、其它机构和个人的资助。

     PLoS期刊也许代表了科学期刊的一场变革:翻阅图书馆里厚重的期刊卷目的时代将一去不返,取而代之的是附带大量链接的电子论文;对于公众而言,科学信息的获得不再仅仅是被动的,某些第一手资料将同样对他们敞开大门。
    免费期刊挑战《科学》与《自然》
    祝晓昆/编译报道
      本月13日,一本全新的科学杂志,PLoS Biology面世。它的到来已然引起了轰动:同其他生物及医学方面的科学期刊不同,这份杂志对于读者是免费的,它转而向论文作者收费,一篇论文1500美元。该杂志的主办者认为,传统的科学论文出版模式应该改变,读者付费购阅对于无偿递送论文的科学家和已经为支持科学研究而上税的大众来说都是不合理的。
      该杂志是由位于旧金山的非盈利性组织——公共科学图书馆(PLoS,The Public Library of Science,www.publiclibraryofscience.org)主办。实际上,他们也并不是第一个吃螃蟹的人。物理学家将论文于发表前在网上贴出由来已久,而伦敦的生物医学中心(BioMed Central)更是自2000年来出版了100期以上的免费生物医学期刊。然而PLoS有着更高的目标,正如PLoS在今夏的美国电视广告中所称,他们将与《科学》、《自然》、《细胞》等国际上顶级水平的科学期刊进行竞争。他们计划逐步推出各个领域的科学期刊(诸如物理学、化学),并将进行学科领域的细分(诸如肿瘤学、遗传学)。除了免费之外,PLoS的另一大优势是对普通读者的充分照顾:每篇论文都会附带有一篇供非专业人士阅读的大纲,某些论文还会附带关于该领域的入门性质的简介;如此一来,即使是新近的研究,普通大众也能明其要旨。
      德国海德堡的欧洲分子生物学实验室的一位科学家Stephen Cohen对PloS的出现表示支持,他在该杂志的首期上发表了一篇论文,他期待PloS能够成功并迫使其他杂志降低价格。英国和美国的两家赞助生物研究的机构也都欢迎PloS的诞生,并宣布今年他们将资助出版费用。
      然而,怀疑者对PLoS能否承担其在同行评议、制作及发行上的花费持怀疑态度。资金不足的学科及发展中国家的科学家能否负担发表费用也令人担心。另一个问题是,研究者会放弃在顶级期刊上发表论文所带来的种种好处而选择新兴的免费期刊吗?大多数

    科学家目前仍持观望的态度。
    Mission and Goals

    The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a public resource.

    Our goals are to:

    • Open the doors to the world's library of scientific knowledge by giving any scientist, physician, patient, or student - anywhere in the world - unlimited access to the latest scientific research.
    • Facilitate research, informed medical practice, and education by making it possible to freely search the full text of every published article to locate specific ideas, methods, experimental results, and observations.
    • Enable scientists, librarians, publishers, and entrepreneurs to develop innovative ways to explore and use the world's treasury of scientific ideas and discoveries.

    Watch our short flash movie to learn more.

    What We Do

    Following its founding in October 2000 by biomedical scientists Harold E. Varmus, Patrick O. Brown, and Michael B. Eisen, PLoS's first action was to circulate an open letter encouraging scientific publishers to make the research literature available for distribution through free online public archives such as the US National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central. This letter, signed by nearly 34,000 scientists from 180 countries, prompted significant steps by many scientific publishers towards freer access to published research. Unfortunately, the publishers' responses fell far short of the reasonable policies we advocated.

    In 2003, PLoS launched a nonprofit scientific and medical publishing venture that provides scientists and physicians with high-quality, high-profile journals in which to publish their most important work. Under the open access model, PLoS journals are immediately available online, with no charges for access and no restrictions on subsequent redistribution or use, as long as the author(s) and source are cited, as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution License.

    Organization Status

    PLoS is a tax-exempt, 501(c)3, nonprofit corporation headquartered in San Francisco, California (Federal Tax ID 68-0492065). PLoS is governed by a Board of Directors chaired by PLoS co-founder Harold Varmus.

    PLoS received a $9M start-up grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and has received support from the Sandler Family Supporting Foundation, the Open Society Institute, the Irving A Hansen Memorial Foundation, the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, the Ellison Medical Foundation, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and many other foundations, universities, and other organizations and individuals.


    The Public Library of Science (PLoS) is a nonprofit open-access scientific publishing project aimed at creating a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license. It launched its first journal, PLoS Biology, in October 2003 and has steadily created another seven journals. One has since been discontinued and as of May 2009 PLoS publishes seven journals, all peer reviewed.

    Contents [hide]
    1 History
    2 Business model
    3 Impact
    4 PLoS journals, hubs, and currents
    5 See also
    6 Footnotes
    7 References
    8 External links
     

    [edit] History

    The Open Access logo.The Public Library of Science began in early 2001 as an online petition initiative by Patrick O. Brown, a biochemist at Stanford University and Michael Eisen, a computational biologist at the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The petition called for all scientists to pledge that from September 2001 they would discontinue submission of papers to journals which did not make the full-text of their papers available to all, free and unfettered, either immediately or after a delay of several months. Some now do this immediately, as open access journals, such as the BioMed Central stable of journals, or after a six-month period from publication, as what are now known as delayed open access journals, and some after 6 months or less, such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Many others continue to rely on self-archiving.

    Joined by Nobel Prize winner and former NIH-director Harold Varmus, the PLoS organizers next turned their attention to starting their own journal, along the lines of the UK-based BioMed Central, which has been publishing open-access scientific papers in the biological sciences in journals such as Genome Biology and the Journal of Biology since late 1999.

    As a publishing company, the Public Library of Science began full operation on October 13, 2003, with the publication of a peer-reviewed print and online scientific journal entitled PLoS Biology, and has since launched seven more peer-reviewed journals. One, PLoS Clinical Trials, has since been merged into PLoS ONE. Following the merger, the company started the PLoS Hub for Clinical Trials to collect journal articles published in any PLoS journal and relating to clinical trials.

    The PLoS journals are what it describes as "open access content"; all content is published under the Creative Commons "attribution" license (Lawrence Lessig, of Creative Commons, is also a member of the Advisory Board). The project states (quoting the Budapest Open Access Initiative) that: "The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited."

    [edit] Business model
    To fund the journal, PLoS charges a publication fee to be paid by the author or the author's employer or funder. In the United States, institutions such as the National Institutes of Health and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have pledged that recipients of their grants will be allocated funds to cover such author charges. PLoS still relies heavily on donations from foundations to cover the majority of its operating costs. PLoS was launched with large grants from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the Sandler Family Supporting Foundation which combined made up 13 million US dollars.[1]

    [edit] Impact
    The initiatives of the Public Library of Science in the United States have initiated similar proposals in Europe, most notably the "Berlin Declaration" developed by the German Max Planck Society, which has also pledged grant support for author charges (see also the “Budapest Open Access Initiative”).

    [edit] PLoS journals, hubs, and currents
    PLoS Biology [1], ISSN 1544-9173; launched in 2003
    PLoS Medicine [2], ISSN 1549-1676; launched in October 2004
    PLoS Computational Biology [3], ISSN 1553-7374; June 2005
    PLoS Genetics [4], ISSN 1553-7404; in July 2005
    PLoS Pathogens [5], ISSN 1549-1676; September 2005
    PLoS Clinical Trials ISSN 1555-5887; May 2006, later merged into PLoS ONE
    PLoS ONE [6], ISSN 1817-101X; December 2006
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases [7], ISSN 1935-2735; October 2007
    (all ISSNs are "EISSNs", for the electronic edition)

    PLoS Hub for Clinical Trials [8], launched third quarter 2007
    PLoS Currents: Influenza [9], 2009-08-21[2]

     

    (来源: PLoS )


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