- 日本国立癌症研究中心2010年6月5日 9:59 点击：5688
The mission of the Research Institute in the National Cancer Center is to advance knowledge in cancer prevention, diagnosis and therapy for cancer control.
Activities include a search for carcinogens and chemopreventive agents using animal models, identification and functinal analysis of cancer-related genes and development of gene diagnosis and therapies. For promotion of cancer research, cutting-edge technologies in genome and proteome analysis are being utilized, and the Research Institute is making major contributions to various aspects of worldwide cancer research.
The Research Institute East, was founded to conduct research directly related to clinical activities in the East Hospital. It is devoting particular attention to developing new methods to improve therapy and QOL with cancers that are presently difficult to cure.
The Research Institute houses 18 divisions/sections, and five projects, as well as the center for medical genomics of the Tsukiji campus, and five divisions/sections at the Kashiwa campus. Approximately 130 staff scientists, 100 research assistants, 90 research residents and other fellows are actively involved along with a number of foreign guest scientists.
|One of the many experts from various fields at work|
Research on the causes and prevention of cancer
In Japan, the incidence of stomach cancer is decreasing while those of lung, colorectal and breast cancers are increasing. The Research Institute is clarifying the underlying reasons with reference to changes, for example, in our life-styles and employing this knowledge to cancer prevention. The active search for cancer preventive agents also has the long term aim of introduction into clinical use.
Identification of carcinogenic factors in our environment and their elimination is important in reducing cancers and the Research Institute is internationally renowned for the discovery of heterocyclic amines, food-born carcinogens in cooked food.
|Mutations of p53 were analyzed by PCR-SSCP, which was developed at Research Institute|
Research on the mechanisms of cancer development
Each cancer mass initially originates from a single cell. Multiple genetic alterations are required for a normal cell to become malignant and show the characteristic selfish growth. Such genetic alterations are known to accumulate in a step-wise manner, so that the concept of "multi-step carcinogenesis" is well established. The Research Institute has made many contributions to the development of this basic theory and found many of the gene alterations that are involved in the development of human cancers. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that not only mutations but also abnormal regulation of genes are important for multi-step carcinogenesis to occur.
Research in cancer diagnosis and therapy
Molecular targets and immune therapies are also focuses of investigation with a view to developing novel approach to cancer control. New tumor markers are similarly viewed as essential for improvement of cancer diagnostics.
Center for Medical Genomics
The National Cancer Center is intimately involved in the Millennium Genome Project launched by the Prime Minister.
As part of this effort, single nucleotide polymorphisms, which are related to individual genetic susceptibility, are being assessed and the data obtained should prove to be very useful for early diagnosis and prevention of cancer.
|The most advanced DNA amplification system (top) and DNA sequencers (right) are extensively used for efficient and productive research.|
DNA chips, which allow analysis of more than 10,000 genes simultaneously, are employed to elucidate cancer variation. With an understanding of differences, the most suitable therapy for a particular cancer can be selected.
We are now aiming to inaugurate tailor-made medicine by fiscal year 2004, and develop epoch-making drugs.
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