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    世界卫生组织(简称世卫组织或世卫)  www.who.int
    世界卫生组织(简称世卫组织或世卫)The World Health Organization (WHO)

    世界卫生组织-简介    
    世界卫生组织的旗帜世界卫生组织(简称“世卫组织”,World Health Organization)是联合国下属的一个专门机构,其前身可以追溯到1907年成立于巴黎的国际公共卫生局和1920年成立于日内瓦的国际联盟卫生组织。战后,经联合国经社理事会决定,64个国家的代表于1946年7月在纽约举行了一次国际卫生会议,签署了《世界卫生组织组织法》。

    1948年4月7日,该法得到26个联合国会员国批准后生效,世界卫生组织宣告成立。每年的4月7日也就成为全球性的“世界卫生日 ”。同年6月24日,世界卫生组织在日内瓦召开的第一届世界卫生大会上正式成立,总部设在瑞士日内瓦。

    世卫组织的宗旨是使全世界人民获得尽可能高水平的健康。该组织的主要职能包括:促进流行病和地方病的防治;改善公共卫生;推动确定生物制品的国际标准等。截至2009年5月,世卫组织共有193个正式成员和2个准成员 。[1]

    世界卫生组织-会徽    
    世界卫生组织会徽世界卫生组织会徽是由1948年第一届世界卫生大会选定的。该会徽由一条蛇盘绕的权杖所覆盖的联合国标志组成。长期以来,由蛇盘绕的权杖系医学及医学界的标志。它起源于埃斯科拉庇俄斯的故事,古希腊人将其尊崇为医神,并且其崇拜涉及蛇的使用。(埃斯科拉庇俄斯如此成功地拯救生命,以致传说地狱阎王哈德斯向至高无上的神宙斯抱怨他,由于害怕医者可能使人永生,宙斯用雷电杀死了埃斯科拉庇俄斯。)

    希腊是蛇徽的发源地,从古到今,蛇徽遍布希腊各地。到了近代,美国、英国、加拿大、德国以及联合国世界卫生组织都用蛇徽作为自己的医学标志。20世纪50年代前中国中华医学会的会徽上也有蛇徽。1948年4月出版的《中华医学杂志》,封面就是一个赫然醒目的蛇徽。直到现在,蛇在西方仍是医务工作者的标记。一些医科学校的?;丈嫌猩叩男蜗?,便是缘于此。

    在欧洲城市街头建筑物上,??杉秸庋桓銎嫣氐谋昙牵阂惶跎卟圃谝恢桓呓疟?。这就是欧洲药店的标志。这种标志与“蛇绕舞蹈杖”有异曲同工之妙。在几千年之前,人类就知道了毒蛇的药用价值,并有目的地收集毒蛇,提炼成药,用于治病救人。古罗马画家、艺术家的作品中,几乎都有描绘健康之神手拿杯子餵蛇的场面。无论在实际生活中,还是在艺术创作中,蛇与医药结下了不解之缘。所以,从中世纪开始,欧洲各国的药店就开始出现这种标志。蛇象徵著具有救护人类的能力,高脚杯则代表人类收集蛇毒的工具。“蛇绕拐杖”--医学的标志和徽记,人们称之为“蛇徽”。


    世界卫生组织-机构组织     
    总部

    2009年5月18日,在瑞士日内瓦万国宫举行第62届世界卫生大会世界卫生大会是世卫组织的最高权力机构,每年召开一次。主要任务是审议总干事的工作报告、规划预算、接纳新会员和讨论其他重要议题。执行委员会是世界卫生大会的执行机构,负责执行大会的决议、政策和委托的任务,它由32位有资格的卫生领域的技术专家组成,每位成员均由其所在的成员国选派,由世界卫生大会批准,任期三年,每年改选三分之一。

    根据世界卫生组织的君子协定,联合国安理会5个常任理事国是必然的执委成员国,但席位第三年后轮空一年。常设机构秘书处下设非洲、美洲、欧洲、东地中海、东南亚、西太平洋6个地区办事处。[1]

    执行委员会

    为WHO最高执行机构,每年举行两次全体会议

    秘书处

    为WHO常设机构

    驻国家代表或规划协调员

    世界卫生组织的专业组织有顾问和临时顾问、专家委员会(咨询团有47个,成员有2600多人,其中中国有96人)、全球和地区医学研究顾问委员会和合作中心。

    WHO的经费来源

    一是会员国交纳的会费,构成“正常预算”。二是泛美卫生组织、促进组织志愿基金、儿童基金会、控制药品滥用基金、环境规划署、紧急活动、难民事物告急专员署、救灾署、世界银行等提供的专款及其他收入。

     
    地区组织
    非洲区域

    非洲区域(AFRO)I,总部设于刚果共和国首都布拉柴维尔。非洲区域包括了非洲大部份国家,除了被编入东地中海区的埃及、苏丹、突尼斯、利比亚及摩洛哥。由于索马里并未有一个有效的政府,所以并未成为区域的成员。此外,有主权争议的西撒哈拉地区亦因为没有代表而未能加入。

    欧洲区域

    欧洲区域(EURO),总部设于丹麦首都哥本哈根。

    东南亚区域

    东南亚区域(SEARO),总部设于印度首都新德里。在世卫分区,北朝鲜被编入本区,与韩国不同。

    东地中海区域

    东地中海区域(EMRO),总部设于埃及首都开罗。东地中海地区包括了中东地区所有国家及未被包括在非洲地区的国家。

    西太平洋区域

    西太平洋区域(WPRO),总部设于菲律宾首都马尼拉。西太平洋区包括亚洲所有在东南亚区及东地中海区以外的所有国家,以及大洋洲所有国家。与北朝鲜不同的是,韩国属于本区,而非东南亚区。西太平洋区现任区域总监为尾身茂。

    美洲区域

    美洲区域(AMRO),总部设于美国首都华盛顿。美洲区域更为人所知的名字为泛美卫生组织(Pan American Health Organization,简称'PAHO)。由于泛美卫生组织早于世界卫生组织成立,所以美洲区域是世卫六个区域中自主权最高的一个。 
     


    世界卫生组织-主要工作    
    世界卫生组织总干事陈冯富珍1、指导和协调国际卫生工作。

    2、根据各国政府的申请,协助加强国家的卫生事业,提供技术援助。

    3、主持国际性流行病学和卫生统计业务。

    4、促进防治和消灭流行病、地方病和其他疾病。

    5、促进防治工伤事故及改善营养、居住、计划生育和精神卫生。

    6、促进从事增进人民健康的科学和职业团体之间的合作。

    7、提出国际卫生公约、规划、协定。

    8、促进并指导生物医学研究工作。

    9、促进医学教育和培训工作。

    10、制定有关疾病、死因及公共卫生实施方面的国际名称。

    11、制定诊断方法的国际规范的标准。

    12、制定不发展食品卫生、生物制品、药品的国际标准。

    13、协助在各国人民中开展卫生宣传教育工作。

    世界卫生组织-参与成员国    
    所有接受世界卫生组织宪章的联合国成员国都可以成为该组织的成员。其他国家在其申请经世界卫生大会简单的投票表决。

    世界卫生组织会员国分成六个区域决,多数通过后,就可以成为世界卫生组织的成员国。在国际关系事务中不能承担责任的地区,根据世界卫生组织成员国或其他能够对该地区的国际关系承担责任的权威基于该地区自身利益制定的申请,该地区可以作为预备成员进入世界卫生组织。
     
    非洲地区办公室(ARFO)

    阿尔及利亚,安哥拉,贝宁,博茨瓦纳,布基纳法索,布隆迪,喀麦隆,佛得角,中非共和国,乍得,科摩罗,刚果,刚果民主共和国,科特迪瓦,赤道几内亚,厄立特里亚,埃塞俄比亚,加蓬,冈比亚,加纳,几内亚,几内亚比绍,肯尼亚,莱索托,利比里亚,马达加斯加,马拉维,马里,毛里塔尼亚,毛里求斯,莫桑比克,纳米比亚,尼日尔,尼日利亚,卢旺达,圣多美及普林西比共和国,塞内加尔,塞舌尔,塞拉里昂,南非,斯威士兰,多哥,乌干达,坦桑尼亚共和国,扎伊尔,赞比亚,津巴布韦。

    美洲地区办公室(PAHO)

    世界卫生组织安提瓜和巴布达,阿根廷,巴哈马,巴巴多斯,伯利兹,玻利维亚,巴西,加拿大,智利,哥伦比亚,哥斯达黎加,古巴,多米尼加,多米尼加共和国,厄瓜多尔,萨尔瓦多,格拉纳达,危地马拉,圭亚那,海地,洪都拉斯,牙买加,墨西哥,尼加拉瓜,巴拿马,巴拉圭,秘鲁,波多黎各(预备成员),圣基茨和尼维斯,圣文森特和格纳丁斯,苏里南,特立尼达和多巴哥共和国,美利坚合众国,乌拉圭,委内瑞拉。

    东南亚地区办公室(SEARO)

    孟加拉人民共和国,不丹,朝鲜人民民主共和国,印度,印度尼西亚,马尔代夫,缅甸,尼泊尔,斯里兰卡,泰国。

    欧洲地区办公室(EURO)

    阿尔巴尼亚,安道尔共和国,亚美尼亚,奥地利,阿塞拜疆,白俄罗斯,比利时,波斯尼亚-黑塞哥维亚,保加利亚,克罗地亚,捷克共和国,丹麦,爱沙尼亚,芬兰,法国,格鲁吉亚,德国,希腊,匈牙利,冰岛,爱尔兰,以色列,意大利,哈萨克斯坦,吉尔吉斯坦,拉托维亚,立陶宛,卢森堡,马耳他,摩纳哥,荷兰,挪威,波兰,葡萄牙,俄罗斯联邦,摩尔多瓦共和国,圣马力诺,斯洛伐克,斯罗文尼亚,西班牙,瑞典,瑞士,塔吉克斯坦,前南斯拉夫马其顿共和国,土耳其,土库曼斯坦,乌克兰,大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国,乌兹别克斯坦,南斯拉夫。非成员国观察者:罗马教廷,列支敦士登。

    东地中海地区办公室(EMRO)

    阿富汗,巴林,塞浦路斯,吉布提,埃及,伊朗,约旦,科威特,黎巴嫩,Libian Arab Janahiriya,摩洛哥,阿曼,巴基斯坦,卡塔尔,沙特阿拉伯,索马里,苏丹,叙利亚,突尼斯,阿拉伯联合酋长国,也门。

    西太平洋地区办公室(WPRO)

    澳大利亚,文莱,柬埔寨,中国,库克群岛,斐济,日本,基里巴斯,老挝人民民主共和国,马来西亚,马绍尔群岛,密克罗尼亚联邦,蒙古,瑙鲁,新西兰,纽埃,帛琉群岛,巴布亚新几内亚,菲律宾,韩国,新加坡,所罗门群岛,托克劳(预备成员),汤加王国,图瓦卢,瓦努阿图,越南,西萨摩亚群岛。[2]
     


    世界卫生组织-在中国    
    2006年11月9日在日内瓦举行的世界卫生大会特别会议上,陈冯富珍当选为世界卫生组织总干事 ,接替2006年5月22日因病去世的前总干事李钟郁博士。这是中国首次提名竞选并成功当选联合国专门机构的最高领导职位。 陈冯富珍简历 世卫组织总干事选举程序

    中国是世卫组织的创始国之一。中国和巴西代表在参加1945年4月25日至6月26日联合国于旧金山召开的关于国际组织问题的大会上,提交的“建立一个国际性卫生组织的宣言”,为创建世界卫生组织奠定了基础。1972年5月10日,第25届世界卫生大会通过决议,恢复了中国在世界卫生组织的合法席位。此后,中国出席该组织历届大会和地区委员会会议,被选为执委会委员,并与该组织签订了关于卫生技术合作的备忘录和基本协议。

    1978年10月,中国卫生部长和该组织总干事在北京签署了“卫生技术合作谅解备忘录”,这是双方友好合作史上的里程碑。1981年该组织在北京设立驻华代表处。1991年中国卫生部部长陈敏章被世卫组织授予最高荣誉奖“人人享有卫生保健”金质奖章,他是被授予此奖的世界第一位卫生部长。

    世界卫生组织-大事记    
    日内瓦世界卫生组织办公大楼1830年 霍乱席卷欧洲。

    1851年 第一次国际卫生会议在巴黎召开,目的是制定国际卫生公约,但是没有成功。

    1892年 控制霍乱的国际卫生公约被采用。

    1897年 另一个国际公约--处理鼠疫的预防性方法被采用。

    1902年 国际卫生局,后来更名为泛美卫生局,以后改为泛美卫生组织,在华盛顿成立。它是今天的泛美卫生组织(PAHO)的前身,同时是世界卫生组织的美洲地区办公室。

    1907年 国际公共卫生办公室 (OIHP)成立于巴黎,具有稳定的秘书处和由成员国政府的高级公共卫生官员组成的稳定的委员会。

    1919年 同盟国成立,在其他任务之中 ,负责解决国际关注的疾病预防与控制事务。同盟国的卫生组织在日内瓦成立,与(OIHP)是平行的。

    1926年 提供天花和斑疹伤寒的预防被修入国际卫生公约中。

    1935年 航空国际卫生公约开始生效。

    1938年 最后一次国际卫生会议在巴黎举行。在亚历山大的Conseil卫生、航海等检疫被移交到埃及。(世界卫生组织的东地中海地区办公室是它的直系后代)。

    1945年 在举行的关于国际组织的联合国会议上,一致通过由巴西和中国建立一个崭新的自治的国际卫生组织。

    1946年 纽约国际卫生会议通过世界卫生组织(WHO)宪章。

    1947年 WHO度委员会组织赴埃及协助遏制霍乱流行

    1948年 当4月7日61个成员国中的第26个成员签署完认可签名时,WHO宪章在 4月7日(现在作为每年的世界卫生日)开始生效,稍后,第一届世界卫生大会在日内瓦举行,有53个政府的代表参加,后来成为该组织的成员。

    1951年 新建国际卫生规章正文被第四届世界卫生大会采用,代替前一国际卫生公约。

    1969年 这些更名的国际卫生规章,去掉了虱传斑疹伤寒和回归热,仅保留霍乱、鼠疫、天花和黄热病。

    1973年 来自执行委员会的报告表明对卫生服务存在着普遍的不满,需要作出根本性的改变。第二十六届世界卫生大会决定WHO将与其成员国合作而不是帮助,共同发展国家卫生保健体系的实践性的指导方针。

    1974年 WHO发起意在?;ざ皇苄《楸灾?、麻疹、白喉、百日咳、破伤风和肺结核等疾病侵袭的扩大免疫计划。

    1977年 第三十届世界卫生大会确立目标:到本世纪末下个世纪初达到卫生保健水平:2000年人人享有卫生保健。所有人将过上在社会地位和经济上富裕的生活。

    1978年 WHO/UNICEF (联合国儿童基金会)苏联阿拉木图联合国际会议采用一个关于以初级卫生保健为关键最后达到2000年人人享有卫生保健的目标的声明。

    1979年 联合国会员大会、第三十二届世界卫生大会重健康是社会经济与和平发展的强大杠杆。

    1979年 全世界批准证明全世界根除天花 ,最后一个天花自然病例发生在1977年。

    1981年 2000年人人享有卫生保健全球战略被采用,并且由联合国会员大会签署,要求其他有关的国际组织与WHO合作。

    1987年 联合国会员大会表示关注爱滋病流行。有关爱滋病的全球计划在WHO内发起。

    1988年 庆祝WHO成立四十周年纪念。第十一届世界卫生大会决定2000年消灭小儿麻痹症。

    1993年 与联合国儿童基金会,联合国开发计划署,世界银行和洛克菲勒基金会共同发起儿童主动免疫疫苗。

    1996年 WHO卫生发展中心在日本神户成立。

    1998年 世界卫生组织公约签署50周年纪念。

    2006年12月12日,世界卫生组织(WHO)和联合国人口基金(UNPF)共同采纳了两种抗人类乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)的新疫苗,这为该疫苗在发展中国家的推广使用提供了机遇。HPV是引起女性子宫颈癌的罪魁祸首。

    2007年1月4日,陈富冯珍博士正式就任WHO总干事。1月9日,陈富冯珍博士任命Anarfi Asamoa-Baah博士为WHO新副总干事。Anarfi Asamoa-Baah博士在1998年就已经是WHO的资深官员。他在HIV、结核病、疟疾等传染病的控制以及药物与医疗技术、对外事务等各个领域具有丰富的经验,他的成就和业绩也得到了广泛的承认与尊重。

    2007年1月16日,世界卫生组织报道了一项在肯尼亚开展的HIV控制项目取得了重大进展。该项目采用电子登记系统实时记录HIV患者的检测和治疗信息,这彻底变革了HIV的治疗模式。埃尔德利特(肯尼亚地名)的Moi大学和美国Indiana州立大学在WHO的协助下,利用这套系统完成了近70,000例患者的治疗。[3]

    世界卫生组织-调查报告    
    2009年11月26日,《喀麦隆论坛报》报道,联合国与世界卫生组织联合发布全球年度艾滋病调查报告,报告指出自发现首例艾滋病病例至今,已有6000万人感染HIV病菌,2500万人死于艾滋病??上驳氖墙?年主要是由于撒哈拉沙漠以南非洲在预防方面所做出的努力,使全球新增感染病人数下降了17%。

    但撒哈拉以南非洲仍然是艾滋病感染者最多的地区,2008年约有67%的人口为HIV带菌者,死亡人口中72%都是死于艾滋病病发。2007年斯威士兰仍是全球艾滋病感染率最高的国家,HIV带菌率达26%。2001年起撒哈拉以南非洲的艾滋病感染率下降了15%,2008年感染人数约为40万人,由于医疗技术的进步,感染者寿命也得以延长。近五年,因艾滋病病发的人数也下降了10%。[4]

    世界卫生组织-出版物    
    世界卫生组织的主要出版物有:《世界卫生组织月报》:每年6期,英、法、阿、俄文;《疫情周报》,英、法文;《世界卫生统计》:季刊,英、法、中、阿拉伯、俄、西班牙文;《世界卫生》:月刊,英、法、俄、西、德、葡、阿文。

     世界卫生组织-重要贡献
    1、经过数年的与天花的战斗,世界卫生组织在1979年宣布这种病毒已经绝迹了。针对疟疾和血吸虫病的疫苗的开发也接近成功。

    2、世界卫生组织于1992年发表 了著名的《维多利亚宣言》,提出了健康的四大基石:即“合理膳食、适当运动、戒烟限酒、心理平衡”。

    3)2003年非典型肺炎(SARS)肆虐,世界卫生组织给予中国很大的支持,并且领导督促各国政府防治非典,避免其再度爆发。[5]

    世界卫生组织-历任总干事 届 姓名 国家 任期
    1 布罗克·奇泽姆 加拿大 1948年—1953年
    2 马戈林诺·戈梅斯·坎道 巴西 1953年—1973年
    3 哈夫丹·马勒 丹麦 1973年—1988年
    4 中岛宏 日本 1988年—1998年
    5 布伦特兰夫人 挪威 1998年—2003年
    6 李钟郁 韩国 2003年1月28日-2006年5月22日
    代理 安德斯·努德斯特伦 瑞典 2006年5月22日-2007年1月4日
    7 陈冯富珍 中国香港 2007年1月4日-2012年6月30日
     


     


    The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations.

    Contents [hide]
    1 Constitution and history
    2 Activities
    2.1 Publishing
    2.2 Programs and projects
    2.3 Conventions
    2.4 Research policy documents
    2.5 Private sector partnerships
    3 Structure
    3.1 Regional offices
    3.2 WHO liaison and other offices
    3.3 Country offices
    4 People
    4.1 Other
    4.2 Staffing
    5 Controversies
    5.1 Condoms and the Roman Catholic Church
    5.2 Intermittent Preventive Therapy
    6 See also
    7 References
    8 External links
     

    [edit] Constitution and history
    The WHO's constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health ."[1] Its major task is to combat disease, especially key infectious diseases, and to promote the general health of the people of the world.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is one of the original agencies of the United Nations, its constitution formally coming into force on the first World Health Day, (April 7, 1948), when it was ratified by the 26th member state.Jawarharlal Nehru of India had given an opinion to start Who.[2] Prior to this its operations, as well as the remaining activities of the League of Nations Health Organization, were under the control of an Interim Commission following an International Health Conference in the summer of 1946.[3] The transfer was authorized by a Resolution of the General Assembly.[4] The epidemiological service of the French Office International d'Hygiène Publique was incorporated into the Interim Commission of the World Health Organization on January 1, 1947.[5]

    [edit] Activities
    Apart from coordinating international efforts to control outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as SARS, malaria, Tuberculosis, swine flu, and AIDS the WHO also sponsors programs to prevent and treat such diseases. The WHO supports the development[6][7] and distribution of safe and effective vaccines, pharmaceutical diagnostics, and drugs. After over two decades of fighting smallpox, the WHO declared in 1980 that the disease had been eradicated – the first disease in history to be eliminated by human effort.

    The WHO aims to eradicate polio within the next few years. The organization has already endorsed the world's first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit for Zimbabwe (from 3 October 2006), making it an international standard.[8]

    In addition to its work in eradicating disease, the WHO also carries out various health-related campaigns — for example, to boost the consumption of fruits and vegetables worldwide and to discourage tobacco use. Experts met at the WHO headquarters in Geneva in February, 2007, and reported that their work on pandemic influenza vaccine development had achieved encouraging progress. More than 40 clinical trials have been completed or are ongoing. Most have focused on healthy adults. Some companies, after completing safety analysis in adults, have initiated clinical trials in the elderly and in children. All vaccines so far appear to be safe and well-tolerated in all age groups tested.[9]

    The WHO also promotes the development of capacities in Member States to use and produce research that addresses national needs, by bolstering national health research systems and promoting knowledge translation platforms such as the Evidence Informed Policy Network -EVIPNet. WHO and its regional offices are working to develop regional policies on research for health -the first one being the Regional Office for the Americas PAHO/AMRO that had its Policy on Research for Health approved in September 2009 by its 49th Directing Council Document CD 49.10.

    WHO also conducts health research in communicable diseases, non-communicable conditions and injuries; for example, longitudinal studies on aging to determine if the additional years we live are in good or poor health, and, whether the electromagnetic field surrounding cell phones has an impact on health. Some of this work can be controversial, as illustrated by the April, 2003, joint WHO/FAO report, which recommended that sugar should form no more than 10% of a healthy diet. This report led to lobbying by the sugar industry against the recommendation[10], to which the WHO/FAO responded by including in the report the statement "The Consultation recognized that a population goal for free sugars of less than 10% of total energy is controversial", but also stood by its recommendation based upon its own analysis of scientific studies.[11]

    The World Health Organization's suite of health studies is working to provide the needed health and well-being evidence through a variety of data collection platforms, including the World Health Survey covering 308,000 respondents aged 18+ years and 81,000 aged 50+ years from 70 countries and the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)) covering over 50,000 persons aged 50+ across almost 23 countries. The World Mental Health Surveys, WHO Quality of Life Instrument, WHO Disability Assessment Scales provide guidance for data collection in other health and health-related areas. Collaborative efforts between WHO and other agencies, such as the Health Metrics Network and the International Household Surveys Network, serve the normative functions of setting high research standards.

    [edit] Publishing
    International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a widely followed publication. The tenth revision of the ICD, also known as ICD-10, was released in 1992 and a searchable version is available online on the WHO website. Later revisions are indexed and available in hard-copy versions. The WHO does not permit simultaneous classification in two separate areas.
    The annual World Health Report, first published in 1995, is the WHO's leading publication. Each year the report combines an expert assessment of global health, including statistics relating to all countries, with a focus on a specific subject. The World Health Report 2007 – A safer future: global public health security in the 21st century was published on August 23, 2006.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organization[12] A Monthly journal published by WHO since 1947.
    A model list of essential medicines that all countries' health-care systems should make available and affordable to the general population.
    Global plan of action on workers' health is a draft to protect and promote health in the workplace, to improve the performance of and access to occupational health services, and to incorporate workers' health into other policies. The WHO has emphasized the effort because, despite the availability of effective interventions to prevent occupational hazards, large gaps exist between and within countries with regard to the health status of workers and their exposure to occupational risks. According to the WHO, only a small minority of the global workforce has access to occupational health services. The action plan deals with aspects of workers' health, including primary prevention of occupational hazards, protection and promotion of health at work, employment conditions, and a better response from health systems to workers' health.[13]
    Health Sciences Online is a non-profit online health information resource from the World Health Organization.
    This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
    The WHO website A guide to statistical information at WHO has an online version of the most recent WHO health statistics.
    According to The WHO Programme on Health Statistics:

    The production and dissemination of health statistics for health action at country, regional and global levels is a core WHO activity mandated to WHO by its Member States in its Constitution. WHO produced figures carry great weight in national and international resource allocation, policy making and programming, based on its reputation as "unbiased" (impartial and fair), global (not belonging to any camp), and technically competent (consulting leading research and policy institutions and individuals).

    [edit] Programs and projects
    African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC)
    Yellow Card or Carte Jaune, is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV) issued by the WHO. It is recognised internationally and may be required for entering certain countries where there are more health risks for travellers. The Yellow Card should be kept in the holder's passport as it is a medical passport of sorts.
    Collaborating centres are institutions designated by the director-general that work to support WHO programs.[14]
    Global Burden of Disease project (GBD)
    Global Initiative for Emergency and Essential Surgical Care
    Global Malaria Programme (GMP)
    Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS)
    Prequalification of Medicines Programme (PMP page)
    International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), with ILO and UNEP
    International Radon Project
    World Health Day is celebrated every year on 7 April.
    [edit] Conventions
    Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
    Convention on Psychotropic Substances
    World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
    This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
    [edit] Research policy documents
    PAHO Policy on Research for Health
    Report of the Intergovernmental Working Group on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property. Document WHA 61/9. 2008
    World Health Organization’s roles and responsibilities in health research. Document WHA 60/23. 2007
    World Health Organization. World Health Assembly, Resolution WHA 58.34 Geneva: WHO; 2005
    Ministerial Summit on Health Research. The Mexico Statement on Health Research. Knowledge for better health: strengthening health systems. Mexico City, 16-20 November 2004
    [edit] Private sector partnerships
    Aeras: Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation
    DNDi: Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative
    FIND: Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics
    IASP: International Association for Suicide Prevention
    IAVI: International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
    IDRI: Infectious Disease Research Institute
    IOWH: Institute for Oe World Health
    IPM: International Partnership for Microbicides
    MMV: Medicines for Malaria Venture
    MVI: Malaria Vaccine Initiative
    PATH: Program for Appropriate Technology in Health
    PDVI: Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative
    TB Alliance: Global Alliance for TB Drug Development
    GAVI Alliance: Global alliance for vaccines
    This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
    [edit] Structure

    WHO Headquarters in GenevaThe WHO has 193 Member States, including all UN Member States except Liechtenstein, and two non-UN members, Niue and the Cook Islands. Territories that are not UN Member States may join as Associate Members (with full information but limited participation and voting rights) if approved by an Assembly vote: Puerto Rico and Tokelau are Associate Members. Entities may also be granted observer status: examples include Palestine (a UN observer), Vatican City (a UN non-member observer state) and Chinese Taipei (an invited delegation).

    WHO Member States appoint delegations to the World Health Assembly, WHO's supreme decision-making body. All UN member states are eligible for WHO membership, and, according to the WHO web site, “Other countries may be admitted as members when their application has been approved by a simple majority vote of the World Health Assembly.”

    The WHO Assembly generally meets in May each year. In addition to appointing the Director-General every five years, the Assembly considers the financial policies of the Organization and reviews and approves the proposed programme budget. The Assembly elects 34 members, technically qualified in the field of health, to the Executive Board for three-year terms. The main functions of the Board are to carry out the decisions and policies of the Assembly, to advise it and to facilitate its work in general.

    The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and from donors. In recent years, the WHO's work has involved more collaboration; there are currently around 80 such partnerships with NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as with foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. Voluntary contributions to the WHO from national and local governments, foundations and NGOs, other UN organizations, and the private sector, now exceed that of assessed contributions (dues) from the 193 member nations.[15]PDF (30.1 KB)

    [edit] Regional offices

    Regional offices and regions of the WHO:
    Africa; HQ: Brazzaville, Congo

    Americas; HQ: Washington, D.C., USA

    Eastern Med.; HQ: Cairo, Egypt

    Europe; HQ: Copenhagen, Denmark

    South East Asia; HQ: New Delhi, India

    Western Pacific; HQ: Manila, PhilippinesUncharacteristically for a UN Agency, the six Regional Offices of the WHO enjoy remarkable autonomy. Each Regional Office is headed by a Regional Director (RD), who is elected by the Regional Committee for a once-renewable five-year term. The name of the RD-elect is transmitted to the WHO Executive Board in Geneva, which proceeds to confirm the appointment. It is rare that an elected Regional Director is not confirmed.

    Each Regional Committee of the WHO consists of all the Health Department heads, in all the governments of the countries that constitute the Region. Aside from electing the Regional Director, the Regional Committee is also in charge of setting the guidelines for the implementation, within the region, of the Health and other policies adopted by the World Health Assembly. The Regional Committee also serves as a progress review board for the actions of the WHO within the Region.

    The Regional Director is effectively the head of the WHO for his or her Region. The RD manages and/or supervises a staff of health and other experts at the regional headquarters and in specialized centers. The RD is also the direct supervising authority—concomitantly with the WHO Director General—of all the heads of WHO country offices, known as WHO Representatives, within the Region.

    The Regional Offices are:

    Regional Office for Africa (AFRO)I, with headquarters in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. AFRO includes most of Africa, with the exception of Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, and Morocco which belong to EMRO. Somalia is also not counted as it does not have an official government, though it is in the process of getting one.
    Regional Office for Europe (EURO), with headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Regional Office for South East Asia (SEARO), with headquarters in New Delhi, India. North Korea is served by SEARO.
    Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO), with headquarters in Cairo, Egypt. EMRO includes the countries of Africa, and particularly in the Maghreb, that are not included in AFRO, as well as the countries of the Middle East, except for Israel.
    Regional Office for Western Pacific (WPRO), with headquarters in Manila, Philippines. WPRO covers all the Asian countries not served by SEARO and EMRO, and all the countries in Oceania. South Korea is served by WPRO.
    Regional Office for the Americas (AMRO), with headquarters in Washington, D.C., USA. It is better known as the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Since it predates the establishment of WHO, PAHO is by far the most autonomous of the 6 regional offices.
    [edit] WHO liaison and other offices
    WHO has a number of specialist offices/agencies, as well as liaison offices at the most important international institutions.[16]

    IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France)
    WHO Centre for Health Development - WHO Kobe Center (Kobe, Japan)
    WHO Lyon Office for National Epidemic Preparedness and Response (LYO) (Lyon, France)
    WHO Mediterranean Centre for Vulnerability Reduction (Tunisia)
    WHO Office at the African Union and the Economic Commission for Africa (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
    WHO Liaison Office in Washington (USA)
    WHO Office at the European Union (Brussels, Belgium)
    WHO Office at the United Nations (New York, USA)
    WHO Office at the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (Washington, USA)
    [edit] Country offices
    The World Health Organization operates 147 country and liaison offices in all its regions. The presence of a country office is generally motivated by a need, stated by the member country. There will generally be one WHO country office in the capital, occasionally accompanied by satellite-offices in the provinces or sub-regions of the country in question.

    The country office is headed by a WHO Representative (WR), who is a trained physician, not a national of that country, who holds diplomatic rank and is due privileges and immunities similar to those of an Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. In most countries, the WR (like Representatives of other UN agencies) is de facto and/or de jure treated like an Ambassador – the distinction here being that instead of being an Ambassador of one sovereign country to another, the WR is a senior UN civil servant, who serves as the "Ambassador" of the WHO to the country to which he or she is accredited. Hence, the title of Resident Represaentative, or simply Representative. The WR representative is member of the UN system country Team which is coordinated by the UN system resident Coordinator.

    The country office consists of the WR, and several health and other experts, both foreign and local, as well as the necessary support staff. The main functions of WHO country offices include being the primary adviser of that country's government in matters of health and pharmaceutical policies.

    International liaison offices serve largely the same purpose as country offices, but generally on a smaller scale. These are often found in countries that want WHO presence and cooperation, but do not have the major health system flaws that require the presence of a full-blown country office. Liaison offices are headed by a liaison officer, who is a national from that particular country, without diplomatic immunity.

    [edit] People
    [edit] Other
    Dennis Massimi- US Ambassador

    Nancy Brinker was appointed Goodwill Ambassador for Cancer Control by Director-General Margaret Chan on May 26, 2009.

    [edit] Staffing
    The World Health Organization is an agency of the United Nations and as such shares a core of common personnel policy with other agencies.

    The World Health Organization has recently banned the recruitment of cigarette smokers, to promote the principle of a tobacco-free work environment.The World Health Organization(WHO) successfully rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2003.[17] The Convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco. On August 28, 2005, the National People’s Congress of China signed the Convention.

    [edit] Controversies

    Demonstration on Chernobyl disaster day near WHO in Geneva[edit] Condoms and the Roman Catholic Church
    Main article: Roman Catholic Church and AIDS
    In 2003, the WHO denounced statements by the Roman Curia's health department, saying: "These incorrect statements about condoms and HIV are dangerous when we are facing a global pandemic which has already killed more than 20 million people, and currently affects at least 42 million." [18]

    [edit] Intermittent Preventive Therapy
    The aggressive support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for intermittent preventive therapy which included the commissioning a report from the Institute of Medicine triggered a memo from the former WHO malaria chief Dr. Akira Kochi [19]. Dr. Kochi wrote, “although it was less and less straightforward that the health agency should recommend IPTi, the agency’s objections were met with intense and aggressive opposition from Gates-backed scientists and the foundation”.

     

    (来源: 世卫组织 )


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